Actor-Based Concurrent Language

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ABCL is a family of Actor-Based Concurrent Languages, developed in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s.



ABCL/1 (Actor-Based Concurrent Language) is a prototype-based concurrent programming language for the ABCL MIMD system, created in 1986 by Akinori Yonezawa, of the Department of Information Science at the University of Tokyo.

ABCL/1 uses asynchronous message passing among objects to achieve concurrency. It requires Common Lisp. Implementations in KCL and Symbolics Lisp are available from the author.


ABCL/R is a reflective subset of the ABCL/1 programming language, written by Professor Akinori Yonezawa of Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1988.


ABCL/R2 is a second generation version of the object-oriented reflective concurrent programming language ABCL/R, designed for the Hybrid Group Architecture.

ABCL/R2 was produced by at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1992, and has almost all the functionality of ABCL/1. It is written in Common Lisp.

Since ABCL/R2 is a reflective language, ABCL/R2 programs can dynamically control their behaviour, including scheduling policy, from within a user-process context.


ABCL/c+ is an object-oriented concurrent programming language, a variation of ABCL/1 based on C instead of LISP.


  • ABCL: An Object-Oriented Concurrent System, A. Yonezawa ed, MIT Press 1990
  • Reflection in an Object-Oriented Concurrent Language, T. Watanabe et al., SIGPLAN Notices 23(11):306-315 (Nov 1988)
  • An Implementation of An Operating System Kernel using Concurrent Object Oriented Language ABCL/c+, N. Doi et al. in ECOOP '88, S. Gjessing et al. eds, LNCS 322, Springer 1988
  • This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.

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