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Atrivo, also known as InterCage, was a Concord, California, United States-based website hosting provider.[1][2]

The Russian Business Network, a criminal organization, had used Atrivo servers. In August 2008, HostExploit, a web security blog, issued a report stating that Atrivo deliberately allowed cyber criminals to use the web domain.[1] The 39-page report was written by Jart Armin, Matt Jonkman and James McQuaid.[3] In September 2008 Pacific Internet Exchange, the last remaining company that provided upstream services to Atrivo, ended the upstream services, cutting Atrivo off from the world wide web.[4] For a period after Atrivo's shutdown, botnet and spam activity declined.[2][5]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Krebs, Brian. "Report Slams U.S. Host as Major Source of Badware." The Washington Post. August 28, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Danchev, Dancho. "Atrivo/Intercage's disconnection briefly disrupts spam levels." ZDNet. October 7, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  3. Hamilton, David. "Atrivo Hosts Much Malware: Report." Web Host Industry Review. August 29, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  4. Hruska, Joel. "Bad seed ISP Atrivo cut off from rest of the Internet." Ars Technica. September 23, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  5. Krebs, Brian. "Spam Volumes Plummet After Atrivo Shutdown." The Washington Post. October 9, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.

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